The scope of microbiology is immense due to its involvement in many fields like medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, chemical technology, diary, industry, clinical research, water industry, and nanotechnology. Increasing the scope of microbiology all around the world, it becomes one of the most popular courses in Nepal. Microbiology deals with the study of microorganism ie.microscope or microscopic organism. They are too small to be seen with naked eyes. Only observed can exist alone in nature. Bacteria, viruses, protozoa, helminths, and archaebacteria are microorganisms. Its concern with their taxonomy, morphology, physiology, biochemistry, genetics, distribution and their role in the natural cycle of matter and practical significance. it’s foundation was established in the 10th century, with the work of Louis-Pasteur and Robert Koch. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature. Microorganisms are beneficial as well as harmful to human beings.
Scope of microbiology in modern science are as follows:
Nowadays the microbiology course is becoming one of the top priorities in the field of science. In developing countries like Nepal, microbiology presents its higher importance in medical. In Nepal, microbiology students don’t have a good career because still it is not developed in Nepal.
There are many examples of Nepali students doing very well in developed countries like Canada, America, and European countries after graduating in microbiology. There is a good career after completing a master’s in microbiology in such developed countries.
- Food industry
- Public Health microbiology
- Pharmaceutical industry
- Diagnostic microbiology
- Environmental remediation
- Marine microbiology
- Agriculture microbiology
- Medical microbiology
- Research laboratories
- Scientific journalism
Each of the scope and area of microbiology can be explained as below:
Microbiology in medical deals with the study of different bacterial fungal viral and parasitic diseases. It also deals with the transmission of causal microorganisms, diagnosis of microorganism and their disease. Also it includes the study of microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology.
It is the study of microorganism that is related to the production of antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, vaccines, and many other pharmaceutical productions. e.g penicillin-penicillium chrysogenum. Vitamin B12 (Riboflavin)-corynebacterium spp.
The study about the role of microbes in the industrial processes such as Brewing (making of Beer), fermentation process, insulin production, antibiotic production, etc. is known as industrial microbiology. Eg.saccharomyces cerevisiae, saccharomyces carlsbergenesis. Industrial microbiology linked to the biotechnology industry.
Microbial biotechnology :
The manipulation of microbes as the genetic and molecular level to generate useful products is known as microbial biotechnology. e.g Production of insulin from Escherichia coli.
The study of microorganism that is related to agriculture is known as agricultural microbiology. It is of two types ie. Plant microbiology Soil microbiology.
It is the study of function and diversity of microbes in their natural environment. These involve the characterization of key bacterial habitat such as the Rhizosphere and phycosphere , soil and groundwater ecosystem, extreme environment. These fields include further branches of microbiology such as matter aquatic microbiology and air microbiology.
The salary scale of microbiologist in Nepal and abroad :
Salary for pharmacy or biotech lab professionals in Nepal starts at Rs.12000 to 30000 per month. But after a few years it becomes double. Government and research labs offer Rs.10000 –Rs.20000. Junior research person my get Rs.15000. Nowadays microbiology graduation is improving in recent years.
In developed countries like the US, Canada, Australia, the pay is far better than in Nepal. Researchers commonly earn $35000 to $70000 per year.
Salary for pharmacy or biotech labs professionals in Nepal start at Rs.12000 to 30000 per month but after few years it becomes double. Government and research labs offer Rs.10000 –Rs.20000. Junior research person my get Rs.15000. Nowadays microbiology graduation is improving in recent years.
In developed countries like the US , Canada, Australia, the pay is far better than in Nepal. Researchers commonly earn $35000 to $70000 per year.
Beneficial uses of microbiology
- For the preparation of cheese, wine, yogurt, etc.
- For the preparation of alcohol, interferum, single-cell protein, etc.
- In agriculture for increasing soil fertility, nitrogen fixation, and bio-molecules.
- Treatment of industrial ways and domestic ways.
- Microorganisms spoil food and cause different food diseases.
- Cause common human diseases like common cold, tuberculosis, typhoid, syphilis.
- Microorganism deteriorates the material like iron pipes, glass pipes, etc.
- Microorganism also causes soil erosion, reduces soil fertility, etc.